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Abstraction Creep

Written by Magnus Holm

Abstractions are very powerful when you’re writing software. You don’t want to write your web applications in assembly, or an operating system in JavaScript for that matter. Choosing the right abstraction makes you focus on the real challenges and lets you forget the insignificant details.

Not all abstractions are perfect. Some are leaky; some are just plain stupid. But wait! We can just introduce an abstraction on top of that, right? Let’s hide the stupid details and provide a new, better abstraction!

Abstraction creep is what happens when you try to save yourself from a shaky abstraction by introducing another abstraction, instead of just fixing that goddamn abstraction.

I’m going to use examples from Ruby and Ruby on Rails, but I think the examples are clear enough for any programmer to understand. Please contact me if something is unclear.

Controller tests

Controller tests in Rails are slow. Or, more correctly: Starting the environment where you can run controller tests in Rails takes time. We’re talking 5-10 seconds here. 10 seconds doesn’t sound so bad, but when you’re trying to quickly iterate over test/code, waiting 10 seconds before getting any feedback kills your flow.

Well, luckily we can introduce another abstraction!

The old code

class PicturesController < ApplicationController before_filter :required_login def create @picture =[:picture]) if @picture.persisted? redirect_to @picture else render :action => :edit end end end

Let’s Objectify!

Let’s use Objectify to make this controller more testable.

First, we separate out the filter:

class RequiresLoginPolicy def allowed?(current_user) !current_user.nil? end end

Then, the actual action:

class PicturesCreateService def call(current_user, params) params[:picture] end end

And finally, the rendering:

class PicturesCreateResponder def call(service_result, controller, renderer) if service_result.persisted? renderer.redirect_to service_result else renderer.render :action => :edit end end end

Now we can test each of these three classes without loading Rails. Woah, super fast tests! They’re even unit tests; only testing a single step of the flow, so your tests become simpler too.

Win/win, right?

Let’s take a step back

What have we actually done here?

We’ve created our own abstraction on top of Rails’ request/response-loop. Is it useful? Yes, we can now focus on smaller units. Does it have some problems? Yes, you can’t easily test the way the units actually work in production. Is it more complex? Hell, yes. We have more classes, more methods, more ends, more lines of code.

Is it worth it? I doubt it.

Fixing the abstraction

Okay, so what’s the real problem here?

Controller tests are slow. Why?

Because loading controllers are slow. Why?

Because controllers are too complex; they depend on too many different parts of Rails which needs to be loaded at startup.

Why are controllers complex? A controller is rather simple:

These are the most important features. Let’s write a very simple controller:

class BasicController def initialize(request, responder) @request = request @responder = response end def params @request.params end def render(*args) @responder.render(*args) end def redirect_to(*args) @responder.redirect_to(*args) end # and so on... end # Our previous code: class PicturesController < BasicController def current_user; ... end def create @picture =[:picture]) if @picture.persisted? redirect_to @picture else render :action => :edit end end end

No dependencies (i.e. no other files/classes to load), no magic. Super fast tests again:

test "uploading a new picture" do request = => { :picture => { ... } }) responder = picture =, responder) picture.create assert response.redirected_to /^/pictures/(\d+)/ # or whatever we want to assert for end

Notice that I’m using the regular Request class. Creating Request objects should be just as easy as creating a new controller object. They are both very simple classes that have few dependencies.

What about filters?

You might have noticed that I silently dropped the before_filter in the last example. This was intentional because filters are not crucial to what a controller is doing. That doesn’t mean they don’t belong there, it just means you need to figure out if it’s worth the added complexity.

Does it belong another place? Maybe in the router (yes, there are frameworks that do the filtering in the router)? Somewhere else? I don’t know. Maybe filters are lightweight and useful enough to take up some controller complexity.

And this is what we should focus on: Figuring out what belongs in the most basic classes in our framework. Not creating a horrible patchwork by adding more abstractions.


Just to make it clear: This is by no means an argument against Objectify itself, just the part where they introduce another layer on top of ActionController. The concept of service objects does make sense in more complex applications, but I believe it’s possible to achieve it within the current abstractions exposed by Rails.


Models in Rails have the same problem as controllers: They are too complex. Too many dependencies.

class Post < ActiveRecord::Base end

It looks so simple, but in reality it’s a complicated beast:

Models in Rails works great as long as you’re using them inside Rails’ request/response-loop where everything is set up for you. The moment you step out from that loop (tests, other libraries) it’s a big hassle.

It’s very tempting to add abstractions on top of ActiveRecord to make it easier to work with. Or you could fix the abstraction by using the Data Mapper pattern instead.

Strive for simple data objects

Abstraction creep often occurs when the data objects are too complex. And there’s nothing about data that makes it complex. Data is really, really simple. There’s only two things you need to do with data:

  1. You need to be able to combine data into one structure
  2. You need to be able to take the data apart again

If you’re not able to do those things easily, you’ve already lost the war. When the data is difficult to work with, you’re forced to add abstractions, dependency-injection, mocks, stubs, and whatnot. Instead of just working with the actual data, you’ll have to abstract away the data.

Please be aware that this is by no means “incompatible” with object-oriented programming. You can still get your precious information hiding. You can still override accessors so the interface you expose isn’t the same as the internal interface. You can still subclass your data objects. You can still add convenience methods for working with the data.

You just have to make it effortless to do the two most important things:

  1. Construct the data object
  2. Access the data it’s composed of

As long as you can do this (hopefully with no dependencies at all), you can actually use your data objects in other classes. In fact, it encourages you to create separate classes for separate problems. When you can easily use your data objects it’s even easier to separate functionality to other classes (as opposed to adding more functionality to the same class).

Sometimes change is imminent

Of course, using complex data objects is far from the only way to create shaky abstractions. Sometimes we don’t even realize it’s flawed until it’s too late. Or maybe the world changes in such way that it invalidates the abstraction.

Rack is a typical example of an abstraction that hasn’t handled change well. Rack tries to abstract away HTTP in a simple and clear way. When Rack was introduced in 2007, the web was pretty much stateless and every request expected an response as soon as possible. A synchronous interface makes sense:

# When the web server sees a request it runs this: env = build_env_from_request status, headers, body = server_response(status, headers, body)

The web has changed. Suddenly you have long-polling, where the request can wait for up to 30 seconds before the server returns a response. We have WebSocket which completely breaks the stateless request/response-cycle. The requirements have changed.

Rack wasn’t designed to handle these issues, so another abstraction was built on top:

def cb = env['async.callback'] # Async call wait_for_long_polling do # Now we can return the request!, {}, []) end # Send a dummy "response" in order to be "complient" with the Rack # abstraction. [-1, {}, []] end

This is a horrible, hacky abstraction, implemented by some Ruby web servers (outside of the Rack specification). Not only does it look weird, it also breaks the whole Rack abstraction. Any layer between the web server and the application (that follows the Rack specification) will behave incorrectly when it sees the dummy response.

You can’t predict the future, and some abstractions are perfect until the future comes and ruins everything.

Sustain the pain; go with the flow. Or: deal with the real problem.

Sometimes you’re stuck with crappy abstractions. ActiveRecord isn’t perfect. ActionController has its problems. You will feel a slight pain when you’re forced to use them in a way you don’t like. It’s very tempting to just add another abstraction. It can’t harm, right?

Personally, I try to avoid these abstractions-of-abstractions for as long as possible. I find that the complexity introduced is hardly worth the advantages. I can accept some slow tests. I can work around annoyances. All in the name of simplicity, consistency and familiarity.

Maybe you’ll reach a point of anger. You can no longer handle the pain. Or maybe the abstraction is just impossible to work around (you can’t do long-polling efficiently in Rack without changing anything). If that happens, you might be better served to rewrite the current (shaky) abstraction, instead of building another layer in an already-unstable foundation.

When you decide to abstract away the abstraction, it means you have the competence to realize that the abstraction is wrong, but not the courage to fix the actual problem. Your choice might seem sensible now (easier to integrate with the old abstraction; less changes overall), but 5 months, 5 years or even 50 years from now, people are going to say: “Why do I have to care about this stuff? Why couldn’t you just have fixed the goddamn problem?”